23rd September 2018
As you may know I am a member of an organisation known as The International Network of Cholesterol Sceptics (THINCS). When I say this, people always laugh. I suppose it is better than people shouting and screaming and slapping you repeatedly. The man who set it up was Uffe Ravnskov – our glorious leader.
He has done far better than me. His first book The Cholesterol Myths, was burnt, live on air, in a television studio in Finland. I am very jealous. Having your critics become so enraged, that the only thing they can think to do is burn your book, is a very great ‘sceptic’ honour. Although one must be slightly fearful that the mob doesn’t stop at burning your books.
Uffe has written many books and papers in this area, and from time to time I have been honoured to help him. Most recently we have battered away, trying to get a paper published on blood clotting factors in Familial Hypercholesterolaemia. Many rejections, and many years later. Hoorah.
The paper is called ‘Inborn coagulation factors are more important cardiovascular risk factors than high LDL-cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia.’ And you can see it here https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987718304729.
We can provide fifty days free access to this paper, before the pay wall comes down. To make it free access forever would cost us thousands, and since none of us gets paid a bean for any of this work, this would be far too costly for a bunch of (in this area) independent researchers.
You need to be a major university, or a pharmaceutical company to make your papers free access. Although such are the costs that even these organisations are baulking. As Richard Smith– who edited the BMJ for many years – said ‘The function of medical journals used to be to make research freely available to all. It is now to keep it hidden.’ Or words to that effect.
Anyway, a quick summary of this paper would be that it is not the raised LDL that causes an increased risk of CVD in familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) – such as the risk may be, in some individuals. It is the fact that FH is also genetically linked to inborn areas of blood clotting abnormalities.
Which means that some of those with FH also have raised factor VIII and fibrinogen levels (there are also issues with the LDL receptor itself, which plays an important role in blood clotting – not covered in this paper). Our contention is that it is these factors that are important, not the LDL level. The data, as we analysed it, supports this contention.
Here is the abstract:
‘High low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is routinely described as the main cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, numerous observations are in conﬂict with Bradford Hill’s criteria for causality: a) degree of atherosclerosis is not associated with LDL-C; b) on average the life span of people with FH is about the same as for other people; c) LDL-C of people with FH without CVD is almost as high as in FH patients of the same age with CVD; and d) questionable beneﬁt or none at all have been achieved in the controlled, randomized cholesterol-lowering trials that have included FH individuals only. Obviously, those individuals with FH who suﬀer from CVD may have inherited other and more important risk factors of CVD than high LDL-C. In accordance, several studies of FH individuals have shown that various coagulation factors may cause CVD. Equally, some non-FH members of an FH kindred with early CVD, have been found to suﬀer from early CVD as well. The cholesterol-lowering trials have only been successful by using apheresis, a technique that also removes many coagulation factors, or in an animal experiment by using probucol, which has anticoagulant eﬀects as well. We conclude that systematic studies of all kinds of risk factors among FH individuals are urgently required, because today millions of people with FH are treated with statins, the beneﬁt of which in FH is unproven, and which have many serious side eﬀects. We predict that treatment of FH individuals with elevated coagulation factors with anticoagulative drugs is more eﬀective than statin treatment alone.’
Of course, this paper also supports my hypothesis that increased tendency to blood clotting (hypercoagulability) is one of the key processes in both accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation, and the development of the final, fatal, blood clot.